Numerical Simulation of Solar Air Heater using Paraffin Wax-Aluminum Compound as Phase Changing Material


  • Atul Kumar IFTM University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Prabhakar Bhandari IFTM University
  • K.S. Rawat MIET, Meerut-250005, India



Solar Air Heater, Phase Changing Material, Paraffin Wax, Aluminum, Freezing time


This paper presents a theoretical investigation of solar air heater using phase change material (PCM). PCM used in present configuration is homogenous mixture of paraffin wax with Aluminium powder. The purpose of using Aluminium powder with paraffin wax is to increase the thermal conductivity. PCM mixtures are encapsulated in cylinders and are used as solar absorbers. Using MATLAB program, the effect of different parameters is studied. It has been observed that with increase in mass flow rate, air outlet temperature decreases and freezing time of cylinder decreases. However, at constant mass flow rate, with increase in cylinder radius, air temperature decreases and while freezing time increase sharply. The different parameters have  to be chosen such that performance of solar air heater can be optimized.


H.M.S. Al-Maamary, H.A. Kazem, M.T. Chaichan, Changing the energy profile of the GCC States: A review, Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 11 (3), 1980–1988 (2016).

M. Mahesh, S.K. Bhor, B.R.V. Bharat, Enhancement of heat transfer rate and thermal efficiency of solar air heater by using flow turbulators-a review, Int. J. Innovative Res. Sci. 4 (1) (2015) 18450–18455.

P. Bhandari, L. Varshney, & V.S. Bisht, Numerical analysis of Hybrid Solar Water Heating System Using Wire Screen Packed Solar Air Heater. 1st International Conference on New Frontiers in Engineering, Science & Technology, Vol. 1, 415-1422 (2018).

L. Varshney, P. Bhandari, & V.S. Bisht, Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Solar Water Heating System Using Wire Screen Packed Solar Air Heater. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application (IJERA), 311-316(2014).

N. Kumar, P. Singh, A.K. Redhewal, P. Bhandari, A Review on Nanofluids Applications for Heat Transfer in Micro-channels. Procedia Eng., vol. 127, pp. 1197–1202 (2015).

D. Zhang, J.P. Li, Y.J. Cho, l. Wang, J. Nan, Thermal performance investigation of modified flat plate solar collector with dual-function, Appl. Therm. Eng. 108 (2016) 1126–1135.

B. Jia, F. Liu, D. Wang, Experimental study on the performance of spiral solar air heater, Sol. Energy 182 (2019) 16–21.

Gangwar HP, Rawat KS, Pratihar AK. Heat Transfer Studies in an artificial roughened solar air heater having wire rib roughness. International journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 2018;119:1505-9.

Bisht VS, Patil AK, Gupta A. Compact Solar Air Heater: A Review. Advances in Fluid and Thermal Engineering. 2019:273-81.

R.K. Nayak, S.N. Singh, Effect of geometrical aspects on the performance of jet plate solar air heater, Sol. Energy 137 (2016) 434–440.

Singh B.P., Bisht V.S., Bhandari P. (2021) Numerical Study of Heat Exchanger Having Protrusion and Dimple Roughened Conical Ring Inserts. In: Sikarwar B.S., Sundén B., Wang Q. (eds) Advances in Fluid and Thermal Engineering. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Singapore.

M.T. Chaichan, K.I. Abass, H.A. Kazem, Design and assessment of solar concentrator distillation system using phase change materials (PCM) suitable for desertec weathers, Desalination and water treatment 57 (32) (2016) 14897–14907.

A.H.A. Al-Waeli, M.T. Chaichan, K. Sopian, H.A. Kazem, Experimental investigation of using nano-PCM/nanofluid on a photovoltaic thermal system (PVT): technical and economic study, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress 11 (2019) 213–230.

Farid M. M., Khudhair A. M., Razack S. A. and Al-Hallaj S. 2004. A review on phase change energy storage: materials. Energy Conversion and Management. 45: 1597.

Marín et al. Improvement of a thermal energy storage using plates with paraffin-graphite composite. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 48(2005), 2561-2570.

V. Shatikian, G. Ziskind, and R. Letan. Numerical investigation of a PCM-based heat sink with internal fins: constant heat flux. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 51(2008), 1488-1493.

S. Mettawee Eman-Bellah and M.R. Assassa Ghazy. Thermal conductivity enhancement in a latent heat storage system. Solar Energy. 81(2007), 839.




How to Cite

Kumar, A. ., Bhandari, P., & Rawat, K. . (2021). Numerical Simulation of Solar Air Heater using Paraffin Wax-Aluminum Compound as Phase Changing Material. Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship (ATT), 3(2), 49–55.